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The Concept of Adaptive Management
The federal land management agencies have long operated under a philosophy that sought what were called "best management practices". These practices were selected from an array of options, based on available science and the experience of managers. Standards and guidelines were then developed to direct how the "best" practices were to be applied across the landscape. The results were monitored (though monitoring was often a weak link in the system) and the practices were continued until some unexpected, unacceptable result caused the managers to alter them or develop new ones. Learning occurred, albeit slowly and unsystematically.
The core idea of adaptive management is to accelerate the rate at which we learn from experience--so that appropriate adjustments to our management practices can be made more quickly. Learning is the principal product of adaptive management, and is considered a resource of value equal to, or even greater than, other outputs of management. Because we must manage resources under circumstances that contain varying degrees of uncertainty, all of the effects of any management action are never fully known; as a result, all such actions are in a sense experimental.
To accelerate the rate of learning from these management "experiments," partnerships of land managers, scientists, and citizens are designing sets of management actions to apply--principally in the Adaptive Management Areas, but also on other public lands in the region. The selected strategies are applied on the landscape at a variety of scales, the effects of the actions are predicted by all members of the partnerships, and the appropriate variables are monitored over time to see if the predicted outcomes were near the mark. What variables will be monitored--and how--is included in the original design, and the monitoring is focused on the learning objectives of the Northwest Forest Plan.
The three-way partnership has multiple benefits: it combines on-the-ground knowledge of the land managers, the scientific knowledge and methods of the scientists, and the local knowledge of the citizen-owners of the public forests. The partnership also taps into the ideas, values, and creativity of all three. Answers to some management questions will require traditional, rigorous, controlled science experiments; having scientists in the partnership will help identify such questions and how the experiments can be designed to answer them. Other questions may be explored by more general management studies. Some types of experiments might not be implementable under the AMA guidelines, but cooperative studies might be initiated with private land owners interested in answering the same sorts of questions.
Some techniques will work better than others; in fact, if an adequate
range of techniques is applied, we would expect that some will probably
fail to achieve our objectives. Successful application of adaptive management
includes the need to take risks--and to learn from both our "failures"
and our "successes." Learning, the cornerstone of adaptive management,
provides the motivation needed to change standards and guidelines where
necessary, and to adjust policies and management activities as needed to
better manage complex ecosystems.
As stated in chapter 4, the AMAs are expected to continue to produce
a harvest of timber. Estimates of long-term yield for the three management
units in the North Coast AMA are presented in chapter 5. Tables 7, 8, and
9 display short-term timber sale plans for the Hebo Ranger District, the
Marys Peak Resource Area, and the Tillamook Resource area.
U.S. Forest Service, Hebo Ranger District
Table 7. Short Term Harvest Projections: Siuslaw National Forest - Hebo Ranger District
||Burnt Flat Thinning||Off-site stands||
||Hiack Thinning||Young managed stands||
||Upper Drift Thinning||Young managed stands||
|Fiscal year totals||
||Upper Niagara Thinning||Off-site stands||150||3.3|
||Little Nestucca Thinning||Young managed stands||
|Fiscal year totals||525||7.0|
||Burnt Last Thinning||Off-site stands||200||4.0|
||Lower Drift Thinning||Young managed stands||300||2.5|
|Fiscal year totals||590||8.1|
||Hebo Remains Thinning||Off-site stands||120||2.4|
||Salmon River Thinning||Young managed stands||260||1.8|
|00||Miscellaneous sales||Natural regeneration stands||160||1.1|
|Fiscal year totals||630||6.9|
||Devil's Lake Thinning||Young managed stands||600||4.2|
|01||Miscellaneous stands||Natural regeneration stands||160||1.4|
|Fiscal year totals||850||7.2|
Bureau of Land Management, Marys Peak Resource Area
Table 8 identifies the short-term harvest for the Marys Peak portion
of the AMA. The specific projects identified for fiscal years 1996 and
1997 will provide enough timber volume to meet the Probable Sale Quantity
(PSQ) that was developed for the full decade 1994-2003. Additional projects
are anticipated for 1998, 1999, and 2000, but are not yet identified.
Table 8. Short-term harvest projections - Marys Peak Resource Area
||Sand Creek Density Management||AMA||75||1.78|
||Callahan Cr. Density Management||AMA||145||2.10|
Bureau of Land Management, Tillamook Resource Area
Table 9 displays short-term harvest projections for Tillamook. Acres
and volumes for 1996 and 1997 are more definite than those for 1998. The
figures for 1999 and 2000 are projected targets.
Table 9. Short-term harvest projections - Tillamook Resource Area
||Rye Mtn. Density Management||AMA/LSR||123||1.50|
||Phoenix Density Management||AMA/LSR||54||1.00|
|Fiscal year totals||177||2.50|
||Neverstill Density Management||AMA/LSR||140||1.10|
||Elkhead/Bear Cr. Density Mgt.||AMA/LSR||400||3.20|
||Patchy Panther Salvage||AMA||30||1.05|
|Fiscal year totals||570||5.35|
||Stoned Gopher Thinning||AMA||75||0.90|
||Spotted Panther Density Mgt.||AMA||75||0.90|
||Cooper's Creation Density Mgt.||AMA/LSR||159||1.90|
|Fiscal year totals||309||3.70|
||AMA and LSR/AMA||309||3.54|
||AMA and LSR/AMA||309||3.54|
Several types of variables will affect the harvest estimates contained in the timber sale plans for each management unit:
(1) The actual amount of timber offered will vary from the estimates as environmental analysis is carried out and detailed surveys of project areas are conducted.
(2) Annual sale volumes may have to be less than the estimates because of reduced agency work force.
(3) The projected sale program may change if higher priority projects are recommended in upcoming watershed analysis of specific basins.
(4) The sale program will also be adjusted annually to fit with Siuslaw
National Forest and BLM programs of work. That is, some years harvest in
the AMA will be more than the estimated long-range sale quantities and
in other years less.
Special Areas in the AMA
Special areas in the AMA include Research Natural Areas (RNAs), Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs), and the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic-Research Area.
Research Natural Areas have been designated on both National Forest and BLM-administered lands for primarily scientific and educational purposes. Specifically, RNAs are intended to
Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs) are designated on BLM-administered
lands to provide special management attention for important botanical,
geological, archaeological, paleontological, or scenic resources, or to
address natural hazards. Some ACECs are also designated as RNAs, and others
as Outstanding Natural Areas (ONAs).
Research Natural Areas
Areas of Critical Environmental
Concern (Those which are also RNAs are listed above)
Cascade Head Experimental Forest
The Experimental Forest, located on a prominent headland on the Pacific Ocean north of Lincoln City, was established by the Forest Service in 1934 to represent typical Sitka spruce-western hemlock forests found along the Oregon Coast. An active research program, managed by the Pacific Northwest Research Station, has been ongoing in this 11,980-acre forest ever since. Numerous long-term studies begun in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s are still active today.
In 1974, Congress established the Cascade Head Scenic-Research Area, which includes the western half of the experimental forest, the Salmon River estuary, and contiguous private lands. This designation added several grassy coastal headlands and the estuary to the mature forest ecosystems already part of the experimental forest. The result has been a more diverse set of habitats available for research on coastal ecosystems.
Together the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic-Research Area
ensure the protection and encourage the study of significant areas; promote
more sensitive relations between people and their environment; and provide
present and future generations with the use and enjoyment of an area of
diverse beauty. The area was designated a Biosphere Reserve as part of
the United Nations Man and the Biosphere Reserve system in 1980.
Communities of the Northern Coast Range AMA
Following is a summary of the various types of communities in the AMA.
These lists will be expanded as other communities are identified.
Communities of Place
Kings Valley Hoskins
Devil's Lake Kernville Lincoln City
Neotsu Oretown Otis
Rose Lodge Siletz
Falls City Grand Ronde Pedee
Bay City Beaver Blaine
Cape Meares Cloverdale Garibaldi
Hebo Lee's Camp Neskowin
Netarts Oceanside Oretown
Pacific City Pleasant Valley Tierra del Mar
Carlton Wapato Willamina
Cities and towns and rural communities near, but outside the AMA boundary:
Forest Grove McMinnville Newport
Salem Sheridan Toledo
Communities of Interest
Oregon Chapter Sierra Club
Oregon Natural Resources Council
Coast Range Association
Native Plant Society
Industry and logger groups
Oregon Forest Products Transportation Assoc.
Association of Oregon Loggers, Inc.
Oregon Reforestation Contractors Association
Local watershed councils
Nestucca Watershed Council
Netarts Watershed Council
Yamhill Basin Council
Tillamook Bay National Estuary Council
Community-based action groups
North Coast Ecosystem Work Force Initiative (Jobs in the Woods)
Local Community Based Partnerships
Soil and Water Conservation Districts
Patterson Creek Pals
Special interest advocacy groups
Friends of Walker Creek Wetlands
Off-highway vehicle groups
Applegate Rough Riders Motorcycle Club
Northwest Trail and Sand Patrol
Non Public institutions and organizations
Local educational and school groups
Special forest products groups
Special forest products collectors
Special forest product buyers
Sources of Funding and Assistance
The following types of agreements, grants, and cooperative programs have been used or are currently in use in the AMA:
Challenge Cost-Share Agreements are authorized under the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1992. The Act authorizes the Forest Service to cooperate with other parties to develop, plan, and implement projects that are beneficial to the parties and that enhance Forest Service activities. Projects can be financed with matching funds from cooperators. Cooperators may be public and private agencies, organizations, institutions, and individuals (Forest Service Manual, 1587.12).
Collection Agreement is an instrument to accept money, equipment, property, or products from a nonfederal party to carry out a purpose authorized by law. These agreements may involve both trust fund collections (advances) and reimbursements. The following federal laws authorize the Forest Service to enter into these agreements (Forest Service Manual 1584):
Cooperative Research and Development Agreements are authorized under the Federal Technology Transfer Act. This Act authorizes the Forest Service, where appropriate, to transfer federally owned or originated technology to state and local governments and to the private sector. The Act authorizes an agreement between one or more federal laboratories and one or more nonfederal parties under which the Forest Service, provides personnel, services, facilities, equipment, or other resources with or without reimbursement. This Act does not authorize transfer of funding by the Forest Service to nonfederal parties. The nonfederal parties may provide funds, personnel, services, facilities, equipment, and other resources toward the conduct of specified research and development projects that are consistent with the mission of the Forest Service (Forest Service Manual 1587.14).
Cooperative Research and Development Agreements for the Department of Interior have been managed by the National Biological Service.
Interagency and Intraagency Agreements deal with other federal agencies. An interagency agreement is used when one federal agency is in a position to provide materials, supplies, equipment, work, or services of any kind that another agency needs to accomplish its mission. Intraagency agreements may be used when one District or Resource Area is in a position to provide materials, supplies, equipment, work, or services of any kind to another District or Area to accomplish its mission (Forest Service Manual 1585, BLM Manual 5010).
A memorandum of understanding (MOU) is the instrument used for
a written plan between the Federal government and other parties for carrying
out their separate activities in a coordinated and beneficial manner and
for documenting a framework for cooperation. A letter of intent
may be used in place of a MOU, only when the activities involve a foreign
government and the foreign government will not accept the title of MOU
to document a framework for cooperation. Memoranda of Understanding and
letters of intent are not fund-obligating documents and cannot be used
when the intent is to exchange funds, property, services, or anything of
value. Under a MOU or letter of intent each party directs its own activities
and uses its own resources (Forest Service Manual 1586, BLM Manual 1786).
Jobs in the Woods
The North Coast Ecosystem Work Force Initiative has launched eight demonstration projects in Oregon, designed to link dislocated timber workers with ecosystem restoration work. The projects are part of Jobs in the Woods, a program created by the Clinton administration as part of the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative.
The North Coast Ecosystem Workforce Demonstration Project is largely based on community partnerships and an ability to form alliances with local, private, and public organizations. Management Training Corporation (MTC), a Tillamook based business, is an example of a private sector partner bringing crucial components to the project. The Corporation acts as the general project manager and provides classroom training. Another example of private-sector participation is the project employer of record, Pierce, Inc. Pierce is a local employment contractor working with MTC to hire the project workers.
Partners in the North Coast Ecosystem Workforce Project include:
The Bureau of Land Management, Tillamook Resource Area, and the Forest Service, Hebo Ranger District, have packaged projects normally let as one-to-three week contracts to create a year-long program that requires a wide diversity of ecosystem enhancement skills. These projects include stand exams, density management in young stands, management of competing vegetation in plantations, animal damage management, plantation pruning projects, culvert inventory and marking, culvert downspout installation, creation of wildlife trees, riparian area underplanting, and road decommissioning.
The Tillamook Bay Community College Small Business Development Center,
in cooperation with federal and state agencies, presents an annual one-day
workshop on "Securing U.S. Government and State Agency contracts." The
workshops present an overview of how businesses can access contracts with
the following agencies: Bureau of Land Management, Forest Service, Oregon
Department of Forestry, Department of Administrative Services, and the
Government Contracts Acquisition Program (GCAP). Graduates of the Jobs-in-the-Woods
program are encouraged to attend.
Another avenue available to finance activities on National Forest System lands is through the Knutson-Vandenberg Act (K-V) of June 9, 1930, as amended by the National Forest Management Act of October 22, 1976. This Act is the authority for requiring purchasers of National Forest timber to make deposits to finance sale-area-improvement activities to protect and improve the future productivity of the renewable resources of forest lands within timber sale areas. Activities include operations to improve conditions on the timber sale area, maintenance and construction for restoration, timber stand improvement, and other improvements related to range, wildlife and fish habitat, soil and watershed, and recreation values. Sale-area improvement activities must be carried out only on lands with full National Forest status and on lands administered in accordance with the laws, rules, and regulations applicable to National Forest lands (Forest Service Handbook 2409.19).
The following are some of the types of projects that may be performed using K-V funding (Forest Service Handbook 2409.19):
Human-resource programs can provide a way to carry out federal work
projects for which other funds are not available. The objective is to provide
both social and natural-resource benefits through administering and hosting
programs in work, training, and education.
Salem BLM District's volunteer program has been growing steadily during the past seven years. Although the number of volunteers has decreased recently, the number of volunteer hours has increased substantially.
What began seven years ago as mostly volunteer park-maintenance help from youth groups, Boy and Girl Scouts, and various other clubs has expanded to include about 70 college students and graduates. Students from across the country and throughout the world seek experience in natural resources by volunteering for the BLM.
Some of these students were placed in Salem through the Student Conservation Association and through college internships with Willamette University, Western Oregon State College, Oregon State University, Chemeketa Community College, University of Oregon, University of Pennsylvania, Lewis and Clark, University of Freiburg (southern Germany), and Sprague High School.
Others are college graduates seeking experience in their field of study in an effort to get a job. The volunteers generally work 3 to 6 months surveying for spotted owls and marbled murrelets, monitoring fish habitat, inventorying soil and riparian conditions, surveying for endangered plant species, and assisting seed propagation at Horning Seed Orchard.
Everybody wins with the volunteer program; it provides work experience for local youth while accomplishing agency goals. One opportunity would be to work with the local school district to set up a Sponsored Group Volunteer Agreement. In may instances, this agreement could provide the student the ability to fulfill some of the Certificate of Advanced Mastery requirements (CAM). Many college students are looking for volunteer opportunities to provide them job experience, complete course work requirements, or both. With summer job opportunities dwindling for students and with dollar restrictions in the agencies, this program could be an excellent way to meet both student and agency goals.
For fiscal year 1995 (October 1994 through September 1995), volunteers for the Hebo Ranger District contributed about 6,777 hours of work with an estimated value of $90,800. The majority of volunteer work was in recreation related projects with 6,280 total hours for an estimated value of $80,900. Project work in fish and wildlife, range, and timber management contributed to the total with 560 hours for an estimated value of $9,880.
Volunteers for the Tillamook and Marys Peak Resource areas, BLM, contributed
about 26,100 hours of work with an estimated value of $261,000. The majority
of work was performed in recreation related projects with more than 15,000
hours for an estimated value of $150,000. Volunteers contributed in other
functions such as cultural and historical, lands, forestry, watershed and
hydrology and wildlife for a total of 11,000 hours for a estimated value
Northwest Youth Corps (NYC) is a nonprofit teenage job training program. It provides youth, ages 16 to 19, experience in environmental education. The NYC crews can do a variety of projects, including trail construction or reconstruction and stream cleanup. All recruiting and payrolling is done by NYC and includes all costs associated with hiring an employee. Tools, supervision, and transportation are provided. Programs last from one to five weeks and the cost to a sponsoring unit is $5,264 per week for a crew of ten teenagers and two staff people.
Apprenticeships in Science and Engineering (Saturday Academy) is designed for high school students entering their sophomore, junior, or senior year and who have potential to excel in science or engineering. Students work full-time for eight weeks, which gives them the opportunity to explore their interests and to make educational and career decisions. This program may also fulfill some requirements of the Certificate of Advanced Mastery. Students are payrolled by Saturday Academy and fully insured before being accepted into the program. Saturday Academy does the initial recruitment and a Forest Service mentor selects and supervises the participant. The cost of the program is $2,500, but often the Academy has funds to defray some of this cost.
Students are expected to complete productive work or projects. They attend a two-day midsummer conference that includes workshops and seminars on science and engineering. At the end of the summer, the student attends a symposium where all participants share their work and report on their summer experience.
Student Conservation Corps (SCA) is a nonprofit organization that provides opportunities for youths to learn about the principles and practices of resource management and conservation. The two basic programs are the Resource Assistant Program, designed for college-age and adult participants with skills and qualifications to perform activities on natural resource management areas, and a high school program designed for students to participate in work crews for a minimum five-week period on conservation and natural resource management projects. A high school crew with six students and one leader costs about $8,000 of reimbursable costs and about $9,000 of non-cash contributions for a five-week program.
Oregon Youth Conservation Corps (OYCC) has as its main purpose to engage youth, ages 16 to 24, in meaningful work in well-supervised, cohesive teams, while enhancing job skills and educational development. Seventy-five percent of the program participants are disadvantaged and at-risk because of poverty, deficiency in family support, or inadequate opportunity for community employment. The OYCC is administered by the Oregon Commission on Children and Families and is fully funded by the state of Oregon. Direct supervision is provided by Forest Service or BLM staff when the work is on federal lands.
Experience International is a nonprofit visitor exchange program
to provide young professionals with on-the-job training and career-related
work experience. These trainees all have a minimum of two years of practical
experience and two years of post-secondary education in a natural resource
field. All exchange visitor placements are made for 8 to 18 months. Reimbursement
for food and lodging is provided by the receiving agency. In addition,
a $319 initial placement fee and a $382 quarterly fee are paid for each
Education and Information Sharing
While searching for new ways to inform and educate AMA stakeholders about natural resources and ecosystem management, we need to continue to make use of existing programs that are effective. The Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management have taken part in many kinds of outreach in recent years.
The home page for the Northern Coast Range AMA is:
Contributions are encouraged and can be sent for upload to email@example.com
The Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management have developed the following partnerships and volunteer agreements that are helping to meet the Northern Coast Range AMA objectives:
Key Federal Agency Staff - Northern Coast Range AMA
The following list is current as of January 1, 1997. Please contact
any of these persons for more information about the Northern Coast Range
AMA or its activities.
|USDA Forest Service
Siuslaw National Forest
P.O. Box 1148
Corvallis, OR 97339
(541) 750-7000; FAX (541) 750-7142
Public Affairs Officer
|USDA Forest Service
Hebo Ranger District
31525 Hwy 22
Hebo, OR 97122
(503) 392-3161; FAX (503) 392-4203
Rural Community Assistance
Public Affairs Officer
|USDI Bureau of Land Management
1717 Fabry Rd. S.
Salem, OR 97306
(503) 375-5646; FAX (503) 375-5622
Public Affairs Officer
|USDI Bureau of Land Management
Tillamook Resource Area
PO Box 404
4610 Third Street
Tillamook, OR 97141-0404
(503) 815-1100; FAX (503) 815-1107
|USDI Bureau of Land Management
Marys Peak Resource Area
1717 Fabry Road S.E
Salem, OR 97306
(503) 375-5692; FAX (503) 375-5622
Plans & Monitoring
|Pacific Northwest Research Station
Corvallis Forestry Sciences Lab
3200 SW Jefferson Way
Corvallis, OR 97331
(541) 750-7435; FAX (541) 750-7329
|Andrew Gray||AMA Lead Scientist|