Albert Molinas and Chih Ted Yang, "Generalized Water Surface Profile Calculations," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 111, No. 3, March, 1985.
Norman, JM et al Hydraulic Design of Culverts, Hydraulic Design Series No. 5, Report No. FHWA-IP-85-15, 1985, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
Behlke, Charles E., Douglas L. Kane, Robert F. McLean, and Michael D. Travis. 1991. Fundamentals of culvert design for passage of weak-swimming fish. Final Report, Alaska, DOT&PF, Fairbanks, AK, FHWA-AK-RD-90-10, February, 1991, 177 p.
Rouse, Hunter. 1938. Fluid mechanics for hydraulic engineers. Engineering Societies Monograms, 1st ed. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, NY, 415 p.
Aquatic Reference List for FishXing
Online searchable bibliography:
Bates, K., B, Barnard, B. Heiner, J.P. Klavas, P. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Wash. Dept. Fish & Wildlife, Hab. and Lands Program Env. Eng Div.
Clarkin, K., A. Conner, M. Furniss, B. Gubernick, M. Love, K. Moynan, S. Wilson-Musser. National Inventory and As-sessment Procedure, for Identifying Barriers to Aquatic Organism Passage at Road-Stream Crossings. In Press. USDA Forest Service. San Dimas T&D Center. San Dimas, Calif.
Jackson, S. Ecological Considerations in the Design of River and Stream Crossings. In Press. USDA Forest Service. San Dimas Tech. & Development Center. San Dimas, Calif.
Aaserude, Robert G. and John F. Orsborn. August 1985. New concepts in fishladder design. Results of laboratory and field research on new concepts in weir and pool fishways. Final Project Report, part 2 of 4, submitted to Bonneville Power Admin.
Adams, S. Reid, Glenn R. Parsons, et. al. December 1997. Observations of swimming ability in shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12(4):631-633.
Adams, S. Reid, Jan Jeffrey Hoover, and K. Jack Killgore. 1999. Swimming endurance of juvenile pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. Copeia 3:802-807.
Adams, S. Reid, Ginny L. Adams, and Glenn R. Parsons. 2003. Critical swimming speed and behavior of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:392-397.
Bainbridge, Richard. 1958. The speed of swimming of fish as related to size and to the frequency and amplitude of the tail beat. Journal of Experimental Biology 35:109-133.
Bainbridge, Richard. 1958. Speed and stamina in three fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 37:129-153.
Barber, Michael E. and Randall Craig Downs. January 1996. Investigation of culvert hydraulics related to juvenile fish passage. Washington State Transportation Commission and Federal Highway Administration.
Beamish, F. William H. 1980. Swimming performance and oxygen consumption of the charrs. In: E.K. Balon ed. Charrs, salmonid fishes of the genus Salvelinus. W. Junk The Hague, The Netherlands 739-748.
Beamish, F. William H. 1990. Swimming metabolism and temperature in juvenile walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum. Environmental Biology of Fishes 27:309-314.
Beamish, F.W.H. 1974. Swimming performance of adult sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in relation to weight and temperature. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 103(2):355-358.
Beamish, F.W.H. 1978. Swimming capacity. Fish Physiology, Vol. VII:101-187.
Beamish, F.W.H. 1970. Oxygen consumption of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in relation to swimming speed and temperature. Can. J. Zool. 48:1221-1228.
Behlke, Charles E., Douglas L. Kane, et. al. 1993. Economic culvert design using fish swimming energy and power capabilities. Proceedings of a symposium on fish passage and technology. Bioengineering Section of the American Fisheries Society 95-100.
Belford, David A. and William R. Gould. 1989. An evaluation of trout passage through six highway culverts in Montana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:437-445.
Bell, Milo C. 1986. Swimming speeds of adult and juvenile fish. In: Fisheries Handbook of Engineering Requirements and Biological Criteria. Fish Passage Development and Evaluation Program, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 51-59.
Bernatchez, Louis and Julian J. Dodson. 1985. Influence of temperature and current speed on the swimming capacity of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and cisco (C. artedii). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:1522-1529.
Berry, Jr., Charles R. and Richard Pimentel. 1985. Swimming performances of three rare Colorado river fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114:397-402.
Black, Edgar C., Anne Robertson Connor, et. al. 1962. Changes in glycogen, pyruvate and lactate in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and following muscular activity. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 19(3):409-436.
Blackett, Roger F. 1987. Development and performance of an Alaska steeppass fishway for Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44:66-76.
Blaxter, J.H.S. 1969. Swimming speeds of fish. FAO Fish. Rep. 62(2):69-100.
Blaxter, J.H.S. and W. Dickson. 1959. Observations on the swimming speeds of fish. J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 24:472-479.
Boisclair, D. and M. Tang. 1993. Empirical analysis of the influence of swimming pattern on the net energetic cost of swimming in fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 42:169-183.
Booth, R.K., R.S. McKinley, F. Økland, M.M. Sisak. 1997. Aquat. Living Resour. 10:213-219.
Brett, J.R. 1964. The respiratory metabolism and swimming performance of young sockeye salmon. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 21:1183-1226.
Brett, J.R. 1965. The relation of size to rate of oxygen consumption and sustained swimming speed of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). J. Fisheries Research Board of Canada 1491-1501.
Brett, J.R. 1967. Swimming performance of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to fatigue time and temperature. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 24:1731-1741.
Brett, J.R. 1970. Fish - the energy cost of living. Conference on Marine Aquaculture, Oregon State University Press 37-51.
Brett, J.R. 1973. Energy expenditure of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, during sustained performance. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 30:1799-1809.
Brett, J.R. 1976. Scope for metabolism and growth of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, and some related energetics. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 3:307-313.
Brett, J.R. 1982. The swimming speed of adult pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, at 20°C and a comparison with sockeye salmon, O. nerka. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1143(iii):1-37.
Brett, J.R. and N.R. Glass. 1973. Metabolic rates and critical swimming speeds of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to size and temperature. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 30:379-387.
Brett, J.R., M. Hollands, and D.F. Alderdice. 1958. The effect of temperature on the cruising speed of young sockeye and coho salmon. J. Res. Fish. Bd. Canada 15(4):587-605.
Bunt, Christopher M., C. Katopodis, and R.S. McKinley. 1999. Attraction and passage efficiency of white suckers and smallmouth bass by two Denil fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:793-803.
Byrne, J.M., F.W.H. Beamish, and R.L. Saunders. 1972. Influence of salinity, temperature, and exercise on plasma osmolality and ionic concentration in Atlantic salmon (Salmo star). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 29:1217-1220.
Clancy, Dan W. 1963. The effect of tagging with Petersen disc tags on the swimming ability of fingerling steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 20(4):969-981.
Colavecchia, M., C. Katopodis, et. al. 1998. Measurement of burst swimming performance in wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarl.) using digital telemetry. Regul. Rivers: Res. Mgmt. 14:41-51.
Collins, Gerald B. and Carl H. Elling. 1961. Fishway research at the Fisheries-Engineering Research Laboratory. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. Circular 98.
Collins, Gerald B., Joseph R. Gauley, and Carl H. Elling. January 1962. Ability of salmonids to ascend high fishways. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 91(1):1-7.
Connor, Anne R., Carl H. Elling, et. al. 1964. Changes in glycogen and lactate levels in migrating salmonid fishes ascending experimental "endless" fishways. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 21(2):255, 284-290.
Dahlberg, Michael L., Dean L. Shumway, and Peter Doudoroff. 1968. Influence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide on swimming performance of largemouth bass and coho salmon. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 25:49-70.
Danley, Melody L., Shawn D. Mayr, et. al. 2002. Swimming performance and physiological stress responses of splittail exposed to a fish screen. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:1241-1249.
Davidson, Viola M. 1949. Salmon and eel movement in constant circular current. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 7(7):432-448.
Davis, Gerald E., Jack Foster, et. al. 1963. The influence of oxygen concentration on the swimming performance of juvenile Pacific salmon at various temperatures. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 92:111-124.
Dorn, Philip, Llew Johnson, and Cheryl Darby. 1979. The swimming performance of nine species of common California inshore fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 108:366-372.
Ellis, Derek V. 1966. Swimming speeds of sockeye and coho salmon on spawning migration. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 23:181-187.
Farlinger, S. and F.W.H. Beamish. 1977. Effects of time and velocity increments on the critical swimming speed of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.106(5):436-439.
Farrell, A.P., C.G. Lee, et. al. 2003. Field-based measurements of oxygen uptake and swimming performance with adult Pacific salmon using a mobile respirometer swim tunnel. Journal of Fish Biology 62:64-84.
Farrell, Anthony P., Helgi Thorarensen, et. al. 2001. Gut blood flow in fish during exercise and severe hypercapnia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 128:551-563.
Fisher, Frank W. August 1976. Swimming ability of juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Anadromous Fisheries Branch Administrative Report 76(9).
Flagg, Thomas A., Earl F. Prentice, and Lynwood S. Smith. 1983. Swimming stamina and survival following direct seawater entry during parr-smolt transformation of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Aquaculture 32:383-396.
Freadman, M.A. 1979. Swimming energetics of striped bass (Morone saxatilis): gill ventilation and swimming metabolism. J. Exp. Biol. 83:217-230.
Fry, F.E.J. and E.T. Cox. 1970. A relation of size to swimming speed in rainbow trout. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 27:976-978.
Fry, F.E. and J.S. Hart. 1948. Cruising speed of goldfish in relation to water temperature. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 7(4).
Gagen, Charles J. and Chad Landrum. February 2000. Response of warm-water fish to road crossings on Ouachita Mountain streams. USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest, Hot Springs, Arkansas. Interim report.
Gauley, Joseph R. 1966. Effect of water velocity on passage of salmonids in a transportation channel. Fishery Bulletin 66(1):59-62.
Geist, D.R., R.S. Brown, et. al. 2003. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 63:970-989.
Gerking, Shelby D. 1953. Evidence for the concepts of home range and territory in stream fishes. Ecology 34(2):347-365.
Gerking, Shelby D. 1959. The restricted movement of fish populations. Biol. Rev. 34:221-242.
Glova, G.J. and J.E. McInerney. 1977. Critical swimming speeds of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry to smolt stages in relation to salinity and temperature. J. Fish. Res. Board. Canada 34:151-154.
Gray, Sir James. August 1957. How fishes swim. Scientific American 197(2):48-65.
Haley, Richard. 1966. Maximum swimming speeds of fishes. In: Inland Fisheries Management 150-152.
Hammer, Cornelius. 1995. Fatigue and exercise tests with fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 112A(1):1-20.
Hanson, Lee H. August 1980. 1980 study to determine the burst swimming speed of spawning-run sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hammond Bay Biological Station.
Harden Jones, F.R. 1968. Fish migration. Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. London. Assorted pages.
Haro, Alex, Mufeed Odeh, et. al. 1997. Effect of water acceleration on downstream migratory behavior and passage of Atlantic salmon smolts and juvenile American shad at surface bypasses. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127(1):118-127.
Haro, Alex, Mufeed Odeh, et. al. 1999. Effect of slope and headpond on passage of American shad and blueback herring through simple denil and deepened Alaska steeppass fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:51-58.
Hawkins, D.K. and T.P. Quinn. 1996. Critical swimming velocity and associated mophology of juvenile coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki), steel head trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and their hybrids. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53:1487-96.
Hinch, Scott G. and Jessica Bratty. 2000. Effects of swim speed and activity pattern on success of adult sockeye salmon migration through an area of difficult passage. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:598-606.
Hinch, Scott G. and Peter S. Rand. 1998. Swim speeds and energy use of upriver-migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): role of local environment and fish characteristics. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55:1821-1831.
Hinch, Scott G. and Peter S. Rand. 2000. Optimal swimming speeds and forward-assisted propulsion: energy-conserving behaviours of upriver-migrating adult salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57:2470-2478.
Houde, Edward D. 1969. Sustained swimming ability of larvae of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 26:1647-1659.
Houston, Arthur Hillier. 1959. Locomotor performance of chum salmon fry (Oncorhynchus keta) during osmoregulatory adaptation to sea water. Can. J. Zool. 37:591-605.
Howard, T.E. 1975. Swimming performance of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to bleached Kraft pulpmill effluent. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 32:789-793.
Hunter, Larry A., Lesley Mayor. July 1986. Analysis of Fish Swimming Performance Data. Unpublished Report. Vol. I.
Jain, K.E., J.C. Hamilton, and A.P. Farrell. 1997. Use of a ramp velocity test to measure critical swimming speed in rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 17(4):441-444.
Jones, D.R., J.W. Kiceniuk, and O.S. Bamford. 1974. Evaluation of the swimming performance of several fish species from the Mackenzie River. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 31:1641-1647.
Katopodis, Chris, Ellis M. Koon, and Lee Hanson. May 1994. Sea lamprey barriers: new concepts and research needs. Great Lakes Fishery Commission 1994 Project Completion Report.
Kerr, James E. 1953. Studies on fish preservation at the Contra Costa steam plant of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. State of California, Dept. of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin 92.
Khozyaistvo, Rybnoe. 1967. Fishways in hydro developments of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translations 52-55.
Koch, David L. and Glen P. Contreras. December 1972. Swimming ability and effects of stress on the Cui-ui Lakesucker (Chasmistes cujus Cope). Biological Society of Nevada Occasional Papers 31:1-8.
Koed, A. and E.B. Thorstad. 2001. Long-term effect of radio-tagging on the swimming performance of pike perch. Journal of Fish Biology 58:1753-1756
Komarov, V.T. 1972. Speeds of fish movement. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Translation series no. 2030. Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
Kovacs, Tibor G. and Gérard Leduc. 1982. Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) at different temperatures. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39:1389-1395.
Kozel, Steven J., Wayne A. Hubert, and Milton G. Parsons. 1989. Habitat features and trout abundance relative to gradient in some Wyoming streams. Northwest Science 63(4):175-181.
Kutty, M.N. and R.L. Saunders. 1973. Swimming performance of young Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) as affected by reduced ambient oxygen concentration. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 30:223-227.
Kutty, Methil Narayanan. 1968. Influence of ambient oxygen on the swimming performance of goldfish and rainbow trout. Canadian Journal of Zoology 46:647-653.
Laine, A., R. Kamula, and J. Hooli. 1998. Fish and lamprey passage in combined Denil and vertical slot fishway. Fisheries Management Ecology 5:31-44.
Lauritzen, Dean Vincent. 2002. Preferences, behaviors and biomechanics of Pacific salmon jumping up waterfalls and fishladders. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. ProQuest Information and Learning Company.
Layher, William G. March 1993. Determining swimming speeds for darters of the genera Etheostoma and two cyprinid fishes. Final Report. Challenge cost-share grant between the Ouchita National Forest U.S.D.A. Forest Service and the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff.
Layher, William G. and April Osmer Ralston. 1997. Differences between electrofished and seined Golden Shiners as related to swimming performance. Unpublished report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Layher, William G. and April Osmer Ralston. 1997. Notes on the swimming ability of a large Central Stoneroller. Unpublished Report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Layher, William G. and April Osmer Ralston. Swimming performance of juvenile Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Unpublished report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Layher, William G. and April Osmer Ralston. Swimming speed performance of the Bigeye Shiner from the Ouachita River drainage. Unpublished report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Layher, William G. and April Osmer Ralston. Swimming speed performance of the Longear Sunfish. Unpublished report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Layher, William G. and April Osmer Ralston. Swimming speeds of the Central Stoneroller. Unpublished Report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Layher, William G. and April Osmer Ralston. A comparison of swimming performance of orangebelly darters collected by kick-seining and backpack electrofishing. Unpublished report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Layher, William G. and April Osmer Ralston. Critical current speeds of several darter species of the genus Etheostoma. Unpublished report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Lee, C.G., R.H. Devlin, and A.P. Farrell. 2003. Swimming performance, oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult transgenic and ocean-ranched coho salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 62:753-766.
MacKinnon, Dixon and William S. Hoar. 1953. Responses of coho and chum salmon fry to current. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 10(8):523-538.
MacLeod, J.C. 1967. A new apparatus for measuring maximum swimming speeds of small fish. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 24:6.
MacLeod, John Cameron and Lloyd L. Smith, Jr. 1966. Effect of pulpwood fiber on oxygen consumption and swimming endurance of the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 95:71-84.
MacPhee, Craig and Fred J. Watts. July 1976. Swimming performance of Arctic Grayling in highway culverts. University of Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. Bulletin 13.
Mallen-Cooper, Martin. April 1994. How high can a fish jump? New Scientist 16:32-37.
Matthews, William J. 1985. Critical current speeds and microhabitats of the benthic fishes Percina roanoka and Etheostoma flabellare. Environmental Biology of Fishes 12(4):303-308.
McCleave, James D. and Kristin A. Stred. 1975. Effect of dummy telemetry transmitters on stamina of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 32:559-563.
McDonald, D.G., C.L. Milligan, et. al. 1998. Condition and performance of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): effects of rearing practices on hatchery fish and comparison with wild fish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55:1208-1219.
McDonald, D.G., W.J. McFarlane, and C.L. Milligan. 1998. Anaerobic capacity and swim performance of juvenile salmonids. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55:1198-1207.
McLeod, A.M. and Paul Nemenyi. 1939-40. An investigation of fishways. University of Iowa Studies in Engineering Bulletin 24:1-61.
Meng, Lesa. 1993. Sustainable swimming speeds of striped bass larvae. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:702-708.
Mesa, Matthew G. and Todd M. Olson. 1993. Prolonged swimming performance of Northern Squawfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:1104-1110.
Mesa, Matthew G., Lisa K. Weiland, and Gayle Barbin Zydlewski. 2002. Swimming performance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Unpublished annual report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Mesa, Matthew G., Jennifer M. Bayer, and James G. Seelye. 2003. Swimming performance and physiological responses to exhaustive exercise in radio-tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:483-492.
Miller, Richard B. and Frances Miller. 1962. Diet, glycogen reserves and resistance to fatigue in hatchery Rainbow trout, Part II. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 19(3):365-375.
Moore, A., I.C. Russell, and E.C.E. Potter. 1990. The effects of intraperitoneally implanted dummy acoustic transmitters on the behaviour and physiology of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Biology 37:713-721.
Moursund, R.A., D.D. Dauble, and M.D. Bleich. January 2000. Effects of John Day Dam bypass screens and project operations of the behavior and survival of juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata). Final Report. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oregon.
Moursund, R.A., R.P. Mueller, et al. June 2002. Evaluation of the effects of extended length submersible bar screens at McNary Dam on migrating juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentate). PNWD-3151. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla, Washington.
Muir, B.S., G.J. Nelson, and K.W. Bridges. 1965. A method for measuring swimming speed in oxygen consumption studies on the aholehole Kuhlia sandvicensis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94(4):378-382.
Myrick, Christopher A. and Joseph J. Cech, Jr. 2000. Swimming performances of four California stream fishes: temperature effects. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58:289-295.
Nemenyi, Paul. 1941. An annotated bibliography of fishways. Iowa Studies in Engineering. State University of Iowa No. 389.
Nikora, V.I., J. Aberle, et. al. 2003. Effects of fish size, time-to-fatigue and turbulence on swimming performance: a case study of Galaxias maculatus. Journal of Fish Biology 63:1365-1382.
Nursall, J.R. 1962. Swimming and the origin of paired appendages. Am Zoologist 2:127-141.
Oseid, Donavon and Lloyd L. Smith, Jr. 1972. Swimming endurance and resistance to copper and malathion of Bluegills treated by long-term exposure to sublethal levels of hydrogen sulfide. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 101(4):620-625.
Osmer Ralston, April and William G. Layher. An inexpensive ichthyonatometer for assessing swimming performance of small fishes. Unpublished report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Pauley, Gilbert B., Kevin Oshima, et. al. January 1989. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Sea-run cutthroat trout. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological report 82(11.86). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers TR EL-82-4.
Paulik, Gerald J. and Allan C. DeLacy. June 1957. Swimming abilities of upstream migrant silver salmon, sockeye salmon and steelhead at several water velocities. School of Fisheries, University of Washington, Technical Report 44.
Paulik, Gerald J., Allan C. DeLacy, and Edwin F. Stacy. January 1957. The effect of rest on the swimming performance of fatigued adult silver salmon. School of Fisheries, University of Washington, Technical Report 31.
Peake, S., F.W.H. Beamish, et. al. 1997. Relating swimming performance of lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, to fishway design. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54:1361-1366.
Peake, S., R.S. McKinley, and D.A. Scruton. 1997. Swimming performance of various freshwater Newfoundland salmonids relative to habitat selection and fishway design. Journal of Fish Biology 51:710-723.
Peake, S., R.S. McKinley, and D.A. Scruton. 2000. Swimming performance of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Can. J. Zool. 78:1686-1690.
Peake, S., R.S. McKinley, et. al. 1997. Influence of transmitter attachment procedures on swimming performance of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126;707-714.
Peterson, R. H. 1974. Influence of fenitrothion on swimming velocities of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 31:1757-1762.
Powers, Patrick D. September 1997. Culvert hydraulics related to upstream juvenile salmon passage. Unpublished report. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife Habitat Program.
Powers, Patrick D. and John F. Orsborn. August 1985. Analysis of barriers to upstream fish migration. An investigation of the physical and biological conditions affecting fish passage success at culverts and waterfalls. Final Project Report, part 4 of 4, submitted to Bonneville Power Administration.
Progressive Fish-Culturist, The. July 1965. News notes on fingerling speed. 27(3):157.
Ralston, April Osmer and William G. Layher. 1997. An inexpensive ichthyonatometer for assessing swimming performance of small fishes. Unpublished report. U.S. Geological Survey.
Rand, Peter S. and Scott G. Hinch. 1998. Swim speeds and energy use of upriver-migrating Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): simulating metabolic power and assessing risk of energy depletion. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55:1832-1841.
Ratliff, Donald E. 1992. Bull trout investigations in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system. Proceedings of the Gearhart Mountain Bull Trout Workshop, Oregon Chapter of the American Fisheries Society 37-44.
Reiser, Dudley W. and Robert T. Peacock. May 1985. A technique for assessing upstream fish passage problems at small-scale hydropower developments. Proceedings of Symposium on Small Hydropower and Fisheries, Colorado 423-432.
Robertson, M.J., D.A. Scruton, and J.A. Brown. 2003. Effects of surgically implanted transmitters on swimming performance, food consumption and growth of wild Atlantic salmon parr. Journal of Fish Biology 62:673-678.
Rulifson, Roger A. 1977. Temperature and water velocity effects on the swimming performances of young-of-the-year striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 34:2316-2322.
Sagnes, P., J-Y. Champagne, and R. Morel. 2000. Shifts in drag and swimming potential during grayling ontogenesis: relations with habitat use. Journal of Fish Biology 57:52-68.
Sakowicz, Stanislaw and Stanislaw Zarnecki. 1962. Pool passes - biological aspects in their construction. Polish Agricultural Annual. Available from U.S. Department of Commerce. OTS 60-21496.
Slaney, P.A. and D. Zaldokas. 1997. Fish habitat rehabilitation procedures. Watershed Restoration Technical Circular No. 9. Watershed Restoration Program, Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, Vancouver, B.C. 5-1 R17.
Slatick, Emil. 1971. Passage of adult salmon and trout through an inclined pipe. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 3:448-455.
Slatick, Emil. January 1970. Passage of adult salmon and trout through pipes. U.S. Department of the Interior Special Scientific Report-Fisheries 592.
Smit, H. 1965. Some experiments on the oxygen consumption of goldfish (Carassius auratus l.) in relation to swimming speed. Canadian Journal of Zoology 43:623-633.
Smith, Lynwood S. and Lili T. Carpenter. December 1987. Salmonid fry swimming stamina data for diversion screen criteria. Final Report, Fisheries Research Institute, University of Washington.
Smithson, Elizabeth B. and Carol E. Johnston. 1999. Movement patterns of stream fishes in a Ouachita Highlands stream: an examination of the restricted movement paradigm. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:847-853.
Stahlberg, S. and P. Peckmann. August 1987. The critical swimming speed of small Teleost fish species in a flume. Arch. Hydrobiol. 110(2)179-193.
Standen, Emily M., Scott G. Hinch, et. al. 2002. Energetic costs of migration through the Fraser River Canyon, British Columbia, in adult pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon as assessed by EMG telemetry. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59:1809-1818.
Stevens, E. Don. 1979. The effect of temperature on tail beat frequency of fish swimming at constant velocity. Can. J. Zool. 57:1628-1635.
Strange, Richard J. and Joseph J. Cech, Jr. 1992. Reduced swimming performance of striped bass after confinement stress. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:206-210.
Stringham, Emerson. 1924. The maximum speed of fresh-water fishes. Am. Nat. 58:156-161.
Stuart, T.A. December 1962. The leaping behaviour of salmon and trout at falls and obstructions. Freshwater and Salmon Fisheries Research 28, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland.
Swanson, C., D.V. Baxa, et. al. 2002. Reduced swimming performance in delta smelt infected with Mycobacteruim spp. Journal of Fish Biology 61:1012-1020.
Swanson, Christina, Paciencia S. Young, and Joseph J. Cech Jr. 1998. Swimming performance of delta smelt: maximum performance, and behavioral and kinematic limitations on swimming at submaximal velocities. The Journal of Experimental Biology 201:333-345.
Taylor, E. B. and C.J. Foote. 1991. Critical swimming velocities of juvenile sockeye salmon and kokanee, the anadromous and non-anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka(Walbaum). Journal of Fish Biology 38:407-419.
Taylor, Eric B. and J.D. McPhail. 1985. Variation in burst and prolonged swimming performance among British Columbia populations of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:2029-2033.
Thomas, Allan E. and Michael J. Donahoo. 1977. Differences in swimming performance among strains of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34:304-307.
Thompson, Ken. 1972. Determining stream flows for fish life. Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission Instream Flow Requirement Workshop. 31-50.
Thorstad, E.B., B. Finstad, et. al. 1997. Endurance of farmed and sea-ranched Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. at spawning. Aquaculture Research 28:635-640.
Thorstad, E.B., F. Okland, and B. Finstad. 2000. Effects of telemetry transmitters on swimming performance of adult Atlantic salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 57:531-535.
Thorstad, E.B., et. al. 2000. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology 57:547-561.
Tilsworth, T. and Michael D. Travis. February 1987. Fish passage through Poplar Grove Creek - final report. Water Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska-Fairbanks.
Toepfer, Conrad S., William L. Fisher, and Jason A. Haubelt. 1999. Swimming performance of the threatened Leopard Darter in relation to road culverts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:155-161.
Travis, Michael D. and Timothy Tilsworth. From Transportation Research Record 1075, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1986, pp. 21-26.
Reproduced with permission of TRB.
Trump, Clifford L. and William C. Leggett. 1980. Optimum swimming speeds in fish: the problem of currents. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:1086-1092.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Pacific Division. 1991. Fisheries Handbook: Fish Passage Development and Evaluation Program. Chapters 3 and 6.
U.S. Army Engineer Division, North Pacific, Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oregon. February 1973. Fisheries Handbook of Engineering Requirements and Biological Criteria. Chapter 6.
Von Herbing, Hunt I. 2002. Effects of temperature on larval fish swimming performance: the importance of physics to physiology. Journal of Fish Biology 61:865-876.
Wagner, G.N., R.S. McKinley, et. al. 2003. Physiological impact of sea lice on swimming performance of Atlantic salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 62:1000-1009.
Waiwood, K.G. and F.W.H. Beamish. 1978. Effects of copper, pH and hardness on the critical swimming performance of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Water Research 12:611-619.
Wales, J.H. 1950. Swimming speed of the Western sucker, Catostomus occidentalis Ayers. California Fish and Game, Bureau of Fish Conservation. 433-434.
Ward, David L., O. Eugene Maughan, et. al. 2002. Effects of temperature, fish length, and exercise on swimming performance of age-0 flannelmouth sucker. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:492-497.
Ware, D.M. 1975. Growth, metabolism, and optimal swimming speed of a pelagic fish. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 32:33-41.
Ware, D.M. 1978. Bioenergetics of pelagic fish: theoretical change in swimming speed and ration with body size. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 35:220-228.
Warren, Jr., Melvin L. and Mitzi Pardew. 1998. Road crossings as barriers to small-stream fish movement. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:637-644.
Weaver, Charles R. 1963. Influence of water velocity upon orientation and performance of adult migrating salmonids. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery Bulletin 63(1):97-121.
Weaver, Charles R. October 1965. Observations on the swimming ability of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94(4):382-385.
Webb, P.W. and J.R. Brett. 1973. Effects of sublethal concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate on growth rate, food conversion efficiency, and swimming performance in underyearling sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 30:499-507.
Webb, P.W. 1977. Effects of size on performance and energetics of fish. In: T.J. Pedley (ed.) Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion. Academic Press, New York. 315-330.
Webb, Paul W. 1984. Form and function in fish swimming. Sci. Amer. 251:72-82.
Welch, H.E. May 1979. Swimming performance of Arctic char from the Saqvaqjuac River, Northwest Territories. Fisheries and Marine Service, Department of Fisheries and the Environment, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Technical Report 854.
Williams, I.V. and J.R. Brett. 1987. Critical swimming speed of Fraser and Thompson River pink salmon (oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 44:348-356.
Wood, C.M., J.D. Turner, and M.S. Graham. 1983. Why do fish die after severe exercise? J. Fish Biol. 22:189-201.
Ye, Xuemin and D.J. Randall. 1991. The effect of water pH on swimming performance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 9(1):15-21.
Young, Michael K. April 1995. Resident trout and movement: consequences of a new paradigm. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, FHR Currents, Fish Habitat Relationships Technical Bulletin 18.
Young, Paciencia S. and Joseph J. Cech, Jr. 1994. Effects of different exercise conditioning velocities on the energy reserves and swimming stress responses in young-of-the-year striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51:1528-1534.
Young, Paciencia S. and Joseph J. Cech, Jr. 1994. Optimum exercise conditioning velocity for growth, muscular development, and swimming performance in young-of-the-year striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51:1519-1527.
Young, Paciencia S. and Joseph J. Cech, Jr. 1996. Environment tolerances and requirements of splittail. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125:664-678.
Ytrestoyl, T., B. Finstad, and R.S. McKinley. 2001. Swimming performance and blood chemistry in Atlantic salmon spawners exposed to acid river water with elevated aluminium concentrations. Journal of Fish Biology 58:1025-1038.
Zydlewski, Gayle B., Jeffrey R. Johnson, et al. October 2000. Validation of existing screen criteria for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Technical Information Leaflet No. AB-00-01. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fish Technology Centers.